Noticia sobre un libro acerca de la educación en la Segunda República y la represión franquista

A través de la eficaz lista de distribución de la Sociedad Española de Historia de la Educación (SEDHE) he tenido noticia de la reseña de Antonio Viñao del siguiente libro -editado por la Universidad de Valladolid–  que, por su interés para quienes se interesan por los logros educativos de la Segunda República, -a los que se ha aludido en esta bitácora en varias ocasiones (ver aquí) –  transcribo a continuación.

libro revolucion educativa

Esteban, Asunción e Izquierdo, María Jesús, La revolución educativa en la Segunda República y la represión franquista. Valladolid, Universidad de Valladolid, 2014, 227 páginas. ISBN: 978-84-8448-777-7.

Este libro es el resultado de unas Jornadas tituladas “Lecciones contra el olvido: enseñanza-cultura republicana y represión franquista” llevadas a cabo en marzo de 2012 en la universidad vallisoletana y organizadas por el Colectivo Contra el Olvido y la Asociación Memoria de la Transición.

En total incluye 16 trabajos agrupados en cuatro epígrafes.

El primero – Reforma educativa y revolución cultural durante la Segunda República– reúne textos de

– Hilda Farfante: “El Grito de Hilda, rompiendo silencios”.

Carlos Lomas :”Literatura y memoria en tiempos de olvido: la utopía republicana de una educación democrática”.

Mª del Carmen García Alonso: “Las 26.550 noches de Palmira. Cultura frente a dogma en las Misiones Pedagógicas de la Segunda República”.

– e Ignacio Martín Jiménez: “La educación republicana: un instrumento de reforma social”.

El segundo apartado – Represión en la enseñanza y exilio de la cultura – incluye los trabajos de:

– Mª Jesús Izquierdo: “Depurar a quien envenena el alma“.

Raimundo Cuesta: “El purgatorio docente: entre el desguace de los institutos y la reinvención del Bachillerato tradicional”.

Clara E. Lida: “El exilio cultural y científico en México. La Casa de España, 1938-1940”.

Esperanza  Ortega : “Enseñanzas de la escuela que no conocimos”.

Alicia Alted:  “Exilio de la cultura”.

– y Enrique Rivas “Cultura y exilio republicano”.

El tercer epígrafe – Nacionalcatolicismo y resistencia durante el franquismo–  recoge textos de:

Elena Maza Zorrilla: “Las reglas del juego del nacional catolicismo”.

Jaume Claret Miranda:  “La Universidad de Valladolid por Franco”.

y Pere Ysàs: “Personas conflictivas: intelectuales contra la dictadura”.

Por último, el cuarto – Homenaje a los trabajadores de la enseñanza represaliados– , contiene:

– un testimonio: el de Celia Muñoz,

– un listado de los trabajadores de la enseñanza de Valladolid asesinados y encarcelados durante la Guerra Civil y el Franquismo, titulado “Pizarras vacías”

– y la aportación de Reyes Mate:  Educar contra el olvido: la memoria como conocimiento moral.

En las páginas finales, a todo color, figura un álbum fotográfico sobre el proceso de elaboración del mural La alegría de la República, de Manuel Sierra, expresamente realizado con motivo de estas Jornadas.

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Dossier de la revista Paedagogica Historica sobre Internationalization in education en la época contemporánea

A través de la eficaz lista de distribución de la Sociedad Española de Historia de la Educación, su presidenta Gabriela Ossenbach, informa de los contenidos del último volumen de la revista Paedagogica Historica: l Vol. 50, Nº 1-2 (2014).

Este volumen recoge una selección de los trabajos presentados al Congreso de la ISCHE celebrado en 2012 en Ginebra (ISCHE 34) sobre el tema “Internationalization in education (18th – 20th centuries)”

Special Issue: Internationalisation in Education: Issues, Challenges, Outcomes

Introducción:

Going international: the history of education stepping beyond borders
Joëlle Droux & Rita Hofstetter

Artículos:

Within, between, above, and beyond: (Pre)positions for a history of the internationalisation of educational practices and knowledge
Marcelo Caruso

The rivalry of the French and American educational missions during the Vietnam War
Thuy-Phuong Nguyen

New School of Mustafa Satı Bey in Istanbul (1915)
Filiz Meşeci Giorgetti

Condescension and critical sympathy: Historians of education on progressive education in the United States and England
William G. Wraga
Crossing borders in educational innovation: Framing foreign examples in discussing comprehensive education in the Netherlands, 1969–1979
Linda Greveling, Hilda T.A. Amsing & Jeroen J.H. Dekker

La réception des travaux scouts de Pierre Bovet en France (1912–décennie 1930)
Nicolas Palluau

Toiling together for social cohesion: International influences on the development of teacher education in the United States
Paul J. Ramsey

Fred Clarke and the internationalisation of studies and research in education
Gary McCulloch

“A miniature League of Nations”: inquiry into the social origins of the International School, 1924–1930
Leonora Dugonjić

Transnational treaties on children’s rights: Norm building and circulation in the twentieth century
Zoe Moody

L’éducation sexuelle, entre médecine, morale et pédagogie: débats transnationaux et réalisations locales (Suisse romande 1890–1930)
Anne-Françoise Praz

Braille, amma and integration: the hybrid evolution of education for the blind in Taiwan, 1870s–1970s
Tasing Chiu

De Genève à Belo Horizonte, une histoire croisée: circulation, réception et réinterprétation d’un modèle européen des classes spéciales au Brésil des années 1930
Regina Helena de Freitas Campos & Adriana Araújo Pereira Borges

Westward bound? Dutch education and cultural transfer in the mid-twentieth century
Nelleke Bakker

L’Association internationale des éducateurs de jeunes inadaptés (AIEJI) et la fabrique de l’éducateur spécialisé par delà les frontières (1951–1963)
Samuel Boussion

Tesis doctoral sobre el papel de las mujeres irlandesas en la educación, el deporte y la medicina

Margaret Ó hÓgartaigh. Quiet Revolutionaries: Irish Women in Education, Sport and Medicine, 1861-1964. Stroud: History Press, 2011. 256 pp. $17.95 (paper), ISBN 978-1-84588-696-7.

Reviewed by Jennifer Redmond (Bryn Mawr)
Published on H-Albion (September, 2013)
Commissioned by Nicholas M. Wolf

Irish Women in Education, Sport, and Medicine

This publication is a compendium of essays that have been crafted over the years by Margaret Ó hÓgartaigh on the subject of Irish women and their historical relationships to education, medicine, and sport. The book therefore provides a concise and powerful statement of her voluminous research in the area of Irish women’s history, addressing material spanning over one hundred years and multiple areas of thematic interest.

Education is the first theme tackled in Quiet Revolutionaries, constituting six chapters in the collection along with a seventh that overlaps with the theme of health. Ó hÓgartaigh takes up the question of women’s experiences as students and teachers, with a slightly heavier emphasis on the latter. The essays range from the legislative changes in the nineteenth century that regularized secondary education and finally allowed women access to the universities, to examining education from the viewpoint of personal memoir. Together the essays give a clear exposition of the key moments and players in the expansion of the educational sphere for women. Ó hÓgartaigh rightly points out that this expansion did not translate into women’s full access to the professions once they were educated. Furthermore, the gendered nature of the rhetoric of the time is highlighted, from fears about women’s physical capacity to learn in the nineteenth century to the battles for equal pay and status for teachers in Ireland that continuously cropped up.

A second section focusing on medicine and health has nine dedicated essays, in addition to the comparative essay on women in nursing and teaching, although these are not of equal length. These essays draw on Ó hÓgartaigh’s work on individual women in the medical profession and are supplemented by interesting case studies from diverse geographical locations, including comparisons between Ireland and the United States and Australia. Comparative histories are difficult to write, thus Ó hÓgartaigh is to be commended for this approach. She points out that pioneer women in the medical profession often gravitated toward maternal and fetal care, developing pediatric care in Ireland and establishing hospitals for women and children. This was partly influenced by society’s views of women and appropriate feminine characteristics that could be applied to the field: kindness, empathy, and “natural” maternal instincts. According to Ó hÓgartaigh’s analysis, some Irish women in the medical field appropriated this rhetoric, focusing on women’s special role as mothers as being important in promoting public health. However, women’s important role in the elimination of tuberculosis is also highlighted, thus Ó hÓgartaigh’s essays allow for a more complex view of women in the medical field to emerge. What is interestingly alluded to is the class dimension of the approach to medical and social care in twentieth-century Ireland, something that marred the efforts of those involved in social and moral welfare. The tragic and complicated histories resulting from these interventions have been increasingly coming to light in recent years.

Margaret MacCurtain’s foreword encourages the author to delve deeper into the histories of women in sport in Ireland, and indeed, with just two essays on sporting themes, the collection could have included more material on this interesting and under-researched topic of women’s modern lives. Women and sport in Irish history is a newer vein of inquiry and these essays may provide the jumping off point for scholars interested in mining new territory. Ó hÓgartaigh makes the interesting point that women in Ireland were playing camogie before women were allowed to compete in the track and field competitions of the Olympics. She further highlights the fact that the participation of women in athletics was condemned as “unfeminine” and improper by the Catholic Church. Both these findings merit further exposition: did the condemnation of Pope Pius XI have an impact at the local community level in Ireland where sport was so integrally connected with politics and national identity? Possibly the most intriguing essay comes in chapter 19 on women’s use of tampons and vigorous physical exercise in public, the inimical attitudes of John Charles McQuaid surfacing again to oppose women’s participation in mixed athletics in the 1930s. Ó hÓgartaigh satirizes thinking by the bishops in the 1940s that tampons were a contraceptive, and interestingly she speculates that “the more pertinent fear was that women might derive sexual stimulation from tampax” (p. 177). This intersection of medical and moral concern over women’s personal hygiene products, a topic that gets right to the heart of historical questions over long-standing anxieties centering on the feminine body in sport, is one that deserves further attention as more scholars follow Ó hÓgartaigh’s lead.

The collection ends with an essay on women in paid work in Ireland built around the comments of a local Kells, county Meath, councilor printed in 1925 in the Meath Chronicle, using the published views as an entryway for understanding the position of professional women in Ireland of the time. The chosen councilor, Mr. Tully, espoused traditional views of women’s place as being within the home rather than the public sphere, predicting calamity for the country as a result of women’s increasing participation in paid work. This was fairly standard rhetoric of the time, and Ó hÓgartaigh’s approach is to analyze his statements in depth, breaking down his claims one by one, and providing evidence to refute much of his overblown statements.

It would be helpful if the chapter titles indicated in a note where and when they were originally published as is often done with reprinted academic works. Although the table of contents lists where each chapter was originally published, this information does not appear in the titles of the chapters themselves. This is particularly relevant in the first chapter, a scan of sources, which has much relevant information in it, but does not include any online source material, being written in 1999, before the advent of many of the important digital databases now available on Irish women’s history. Ó hÓgartaigh could perhaps have updated this chapter to reflect what source material, or even archival catalogues, are now available online. It is to be assumed that none of the other chapters were updated either in light of republication–this is not a critique, but rather it could have been made explicit.

Quiet Revolutionaries will appeal to a wide audience, and the brevity of many of the essays will mean that it is a book that will bear nonlinear and thematic reading. The format will also make the book useful as a teaching tool, with helpfully concise essays that could easily enliven an undergraduate course, particularly those on women in education and the professions.

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