Balance de la obra del historiador James Lockart

Con motivo del reciente fallecimiento del historiador norteamericano James Marvin Lockart mi colega peruano Nicanor Domínguez ha difundido a serie de enlaces relacionados con la vida y la obra de este gran especialista en la historia colonial de la América latina.

Tras efectuar un sólido estudio prosopográfico de los hombres de Cajamarca, es decir de la hueste castellana que tuvo un papel decisivo en la invasión del Tawantinsuyu, James Lockart escribió  con posterioridad una serie de obras decisivas para la comprensión del modo de vida de las poblaciones indígenas mexicanas en el período colonial tras adquirir un sólido conocimiento del náhuatl e insistir en que para ser un buen etnohistoriador era imprescindible conocer las lenguas indígenas.  Asi lo destaca el historiador mexicano Rodrigo Martínez Baracs en el primero de los enlaces disponibles a continuación.

Esta consideración de Lockart la tuvieron presente ciertos historiadores del siglo XVI. Así  las aportaciones efectuadas por el cronista Pedro Cieza de León al conocimiento de las sociedades andinas se debieron en parte al asesoramiento que le proporcionó el dominico fray Domingo de Santo Tomás, el primer europeo que hizo una gramática quechua, y un diccionario quechua-castellano, editados en Valladolid en 1560. Esta cuestión la abordé en mi trabajo “La Crónica del Perú de Cieza de León como proceso de conocimiento del mundo andino”, publicado allá por 1988 en el primer volumen del libro colectivo Ciencia, vida y espacio en Iberoamérica, editado por el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, en Madrid.

A destacar en la relación de enlaces que tiene el lector a su disposición el que da acceso al Archivo Virtual Mesoamericano de la Universidad de Oregón. A través de él se puede acceder a 7905 objetos digitalizados.

Archivo Virtual Mesoamericano

James Lockhart, historiador

Por Rodrigo Martínez Baracs

Letras Libres (Mexico), Junio 2012

http://www.letraslibres.com/revista/letrillas/james-lockhart-historiador

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James Marvin Lockhart (1933 – 2014)

English:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Lockhart_(historian)

Español:  http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Lockhart

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James Lockhart, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, UCLA

http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/history/lockhart/

http://www.history.ucla.edu/people/emeriti-ae-1/emeriti?lid=4179

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Virtual Mesoamerican Archive

http://vma.uoregon.edu/sch_doprofile.lasso?Scholar=169-JLoc&Dowhat=a&lang=

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“Postconquest Nahua Society and Concepts Viewed through Nahuatl Writings”

Estudios de Cultura Nahuatl (UNAM, Mexico), 20

http://www.historicas.unam.mx/publicaciones/revistas/nahuatl/pdf/ecn20/333.pdf

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“Three Experiences of Culture Contact: Nahua, Maya, and Quechua” (1998)

Boone & Cummins, eds., Native Traditions in the Postconquest World (1998)

http://www.doaks.org/resources/publications/doaks-online-publications/native/trad03.pdf

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Nahuatl as Written: Lessons in Older Written Nahuatl, with Copious
Examples and Texts (2004)

http://www.mexicauprising.net/NahuatlasWritten.pdf

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Introduction: Background and Course of the New Philology

http://whp.uoregon.edu/Lockhart/Intro.pdf

* from James Lockhart, LisaSousa, and Stephanie Wood, eds., “Sources
and Methods for the Study of Post-conquest Mesoamerican Ethnohistory,”
Provisional Version (2007 ff.)

http://whp.uoregon.edu/Lockhart/index.html

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Los animales en la historia de la América latina

portada Centering Animals

En la obra Centering Animals in Latin American History, publicada por Duke University Press en 2013, coordinada por Martha Few y Zeb Tortorici, una docena de autores escriben sobre aspectos poco conocidos del papel desempeñado por los animales en la historia de la América latina tanto en su época colonial como en su etapa poscolonial. El conjunto de ensayos agrupados en esta obra revela cómo las interacciones entre los humanos y los animales han influido en la historia y la cultura latinoamericana. También consideran a los animales como actores sociales en las historias de diversos países latinoamericanos como México, Guatemala, la República Dominicana, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Chile, Brasil, Perú y Argentina. En estos ensayos se abordan cuestiones diversas: desde el papel desempeñado por los animales en los esfuerzos colonizadores hasta el uso de los monos en ensayos médicos experimentales en Puerto Rico. Varios de los autores exploran la relación entre animales, medicina y salud y las recientes políticas medioambientales tendentes a su protección.

Esta pluralidad de miradas  cubren un vacío historiográfico. Y construyen un libro original como se aprecia recorriendo el índice del libro.

  • Foreword / Erica Fudge  ix

    Acknowledgments  xiii

    Introduction. Writing Animal Histories / Zeb Tortorici and Martha Few  1

    Part I. Animals, Culture, and Colonialism 

    1. The Year the People Turned into Cattle: The End of the World in New Spain, 1558 / León García Garagarza  31

    2. Killing Locusts in Colonial Guatemala / Martha Few  62

    3. “In the Name of the Father and the Mother of All Dogs”: Canine Baptisms, Weddings, and Funerals in Bourbon Mexico / Zeb Tortorici  93

    Part II. Animals and Medicine, Science, and Public Health  

    4. From Natural History to Popular Remedy: Animals and Their Medicinal Applications among the Kallawaya in Colonial Peru / Adam Warren  123

    5. Pest to Vector: Disease, Public Health, and the Challenges of State-Building in Yucatán, Mexico, 1833-1922 / Heather McCrea  149

    6. Notes on Medicine, Culture, and the History of Imported Monkeys in Puerto Rico / Neel Ahuja  180

    Part III. The Meanings and Politics of Postcolonial Animals 

    7. Animal Labor and Protection in Cuba: Changes in Relationships with Animals in the Nineteenth Century / Reinaldo Funes Monzete (translated by Alex Hildago and Zeb Tortorici)  209

    8. On Edge: Fur Seals and Hunters along the Patagonian Littoral, 1860–1930 / John Soluri  243

    9. Birds and Scientists in Brazil: In Search of Protection, 1894–1938 / Regina Horta Duarte (translated by Zeb Tortorici and Roger Arthur Cough)  270

    10. Trujillo, the Goat: Of Beasts, Men, and Politics in the Dominican Republic / Lauren Derby  302

    Conclusion. Loving, Being, Killing Animals / Neil L. Whitehead  329

    Recommended Bibliography  347

    Contributors  357

    Index  361

Esta obra singular ya ha llamado ya la atención de diversos lectores. Así se manifiesta en la reseña de Emily Wakild, de la Boise State University, publicada en la sección de reseñas del portal H-Net Humanities and Social Sciences.

Sabine MacCormack In memoriam

Mi colega peruano Nicanor Domínguez me informa del fallecimiento de Sabine MacCormack, gran experta en los cronistas de Indias. Hace años, hacia 1987, intercambié información con ella sobre el  quechuista lascasiano fray Domingo de Santo Tomás, líder del partido de los indios en el Perú del siglo XVI, y autor de la primera gramática quechua y del primer diccionario quechua-castellano. Sobre este informante de fray Bartolomé de las Casas y Pedro Cieza de León hice una tesis de maestría que defendí en la sede de Quito de FLACSO en 1988.

Historian of Late Antiquity and Andean History
* From the ‘In Memoriam’ column in the September 2013 issue of “Perspectives on History”.

http://www.historians.org/Perspectives/issues/2013/1309/In-Memoriam_Sabine-MacCormack.cfm

Sabine MacCormack died unexpectedly of a heart attack while tending her garden. In a sense, such was her life’s occupation. A unique voice in the historical profession, she approached scholarship, teaching, and life itself in a spirit of cultivating, of nurturing, and of growth.

Born in Frankfurt, Germany, MacCormack studied Greek and Latin philology and history at the Goethe Universität, Frankfurt (1960–61), and history (particularly late antiquity) at Oxford (BA 1964; DPhil 1974; with a diploma in archives from the Univ. of Liverpool, 1964).

MacCormack taught classics and worked as a librarian, editor, and archivist before going on to teach at Stanford University, hold the Alice Freeman Palmer Professorship of History at University of Michigan, and the Theodore M. Hesburgh Professorship of Arts and Letters at the University of Notre Dame.

Among other honors, in 2001, she was the first recipient of the Mellon Foundation’s Distinguished Achievement Award for scholarship in the humanities.

It was at Oxford in graduate school that MacCormack established her research agendas in late antiquity, medieval and early modern Europe, and Andean history.

The scope and trajectories of those fields would be substantially altered by her work.

In focusing on the Andean past, MacCormack urged that responsible historical scholarship should embrace the totality of populations that were at once Latin and Spanish; Quechua, creole, and Aymara; and European and American.

To this end, she was instrumental in creating the Latin American Indigenous Language Learning Program at Notre Dame, endowing it with funds from her Mellon award.

Her books include “Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity” (1981), “Religion in the Andes: Vision and Imagination in Early Colonial Peru” (1991), and “The Shadows of Poetry: Vergil in the Mind of Augustine” (1998).

She also published over 60 articles. “Art and Ceremony” has had enormous influence on late antique scholarship. To a point, this occurred solely through its attention to late ancient art and ekphrasis. She also insisted that ceremonial mattered, that courtly genres of art and literature gave access to a language of politics conducted largely through gesture and extraordinarily conventional utterances, and—the seemingly static nature of this language notwithstanding—that one could witness its gradual failure as a tool for achieving social consensus.

Though Sabine wrote two books on religion and religious thought, “Art and Ceremony” gave the world a means of understanding the late ancient world as late antique, whose primary lens was politics rather than religion. In 1981, this was no small feat.

In 2007, her last published book, “On the Wings of Time: Rome, the Incas, Spain, and Peru”, received both the James A. Rawley Prize in Atlantic History and the John Edwin Fagg Prize (for Spanish, Portuguese, or Latin American history) from the AHA. Steeped alike in the histories of the Old World and the New, Sabine revisited their encounter and its cultural fallout to formulate a new synthesis. On the Wings of Time brought together the two strands of the past, the European and the American, through a path-breaking approach to their conjunction, and described how it began nearly immediately post-contact, with ongoing consequence. The book details how, through finding parallels between Rome and American empires, and in writing of the latter as Europeans wrote of Rome, the pre-contact empires became, to paraphrase the late historian John Leddy Phelan, the pride-inducing classical antiquity of post-contact peoples.

Sabine thus cleared the way to writing and teaching a truer, richer, broader, more nuanced, and less politicized Spanish American past and heritage. MacCormack received many honors in the course of her career. Among them, she held fellowships at Dumbarton Oaks in both Byzantine (1977–78) and pre-Columbian studies (1987–88), the only person ever so honored. In 2000, she was elected a Fellow of the Medieval Academy of America. She was a Fellow of the American Philosophical Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; she delivered the Christian Gauss Seminar in Criticism at Princeton University; and she held a two-year Mellon Professorship in Latin American History at the Institute for Advanced Studies. She founded and edited the series History, Languages, and Cultures of the Spanish and Portuguese Worlds. She lectured extensively worldwide. The massive erudition that sustained her scholarship across this vast terrain of ecology, peoples, and languages was sustained in turn by an intense work ethic in archives and printed materials, sites, and museums. This learnedness made her work exceptionally dense and difficult to summarize. Sabine simply saw more than others: texts and images spoke more deeply to her, because the worlds that generated them, and the pasts that gave birth to those worlds, were so fully known by her. Her work was nearly instantly recognized as admirable, but her arguments took a long time to take root in scholarship, and they have in many respects proved inimitable.

Sabine also knitted with great sophistication and was deeply learned in the history and production methods of fine-spun Andean textiles, and one might say of her scholarship that many recognized intuitively the quality of stitching or weave without being able to (re)produce it. She was also an artist of passion and skill. In On the Wings of Time, a number of her watercolors were reproduced, including on the cover.

Sabine throve on good company. In spirited conversation she could make a point passionately or deliver a mischievous observation with tempo and inflection rising, to conclude in a companionable “You know?” Difficult questions she met head-on with answers rich in detail but also ordered and beautiful. Even if one couldn’t follow or retain the details, memory persisted of learning presented as a gift and a beacon.

Sabine possessed deep moral and political commitments. She loved the United States and became a citizen, but she was not without criticisms and never shy about making them. Hers was a forceful personality; even so a flood of remembrances of her posted online by colleagues and students—in English, Spanish, Quechua, and Latin—recall her most often as generous and inspirational. She was also a deeply committed citizen of the academy, serving thoughtfully on the selection committees of the American Council of Learned Societies, American Philosophical Society, and Guggenheim Foundation, as well as evaluating proposals for scholarly organizations around the world.

She is survived by a daughter, Catherine.

—Clifford Ando, University of Chicago —Peggy Liss, Washington, DCCopyright © American Historical Association

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